Summaries of talks given at Foxrock Local History Club

 

“Roman Influences in our Area”

Michael O’Flaherty                                               

19 September 2017

Michael began by saying he had visited Rome many times and especially in recent years while sailing along the Italian coast and the more he visited places like Rome, Naples, Pompeii and Herculaneum the more he became aware of the huge influences the Roman Empire had on Ireland and this local area.

The Romans never invade Ireland although at the time of Julius Caesar, Agricola, governor of Britannia, entertained an exiled Irish King with the intention of making him the pretext for conquest – but it never happened. However, Roman artifacts and/or burials found at Drumanagh (north Dublin), Tara, Lambay Island and Bray suggest that there was a commercial and cultural relationship between the ancient Roman world and Hibernia. Ptolemy (circa 150AD) drew a remarkably accurate map of Hibernia and it is agreed this could not possibly be achieved without eye witness accounts.

We know St Patrick, a Roman Britain, came to Ireland in the mid 5th century, just as the Western Roman Empire was in the early stages of decline, to help with the conversion of Irish pagans. He was the first Bishop of Armagh and primate of Ireland. There are presently two cathedrals in Armagh – one CoI and the other RC. At about the same time, the monastic era began in Europe and Ireland and their primary function was the preservation of Roman Culture and the Latin Language. In Ireland, the monasteries became centres of excellence in Celtic Christianity, Education and Manuscript writing – mostly copies of the old Latin Bible – the most famous in Ireland is the illuminated Manuscript written by the Columbans monks called the “Book of Kells” about 800AD. The preservation of Latin has had a huge impact on the English language – many English words come directly from Latin and thousands of other words are derivatives of Latin words eg manus is the Latin for hand, scribere is the Latin verb to write hence manuscript means: “written by hand”. With the establishment of the monasteries, romanisation of Celtic Ireland began and has continued to this day.

The 18th century was a period of revival of ancient Roman architecture called the Neo-classical period. The most popular style was Palladian Architecture named after the Italian architect, Andrea Palladio, who lived in the 16th century. The first Palladian house in Ireland was Castletown House designed by Alessandro Galilei and whose construction was overseen by the Irish architect, Edward Lovett Pearce. The Palladian style with its structural symmetry, ionic pillars, pediments and steps running up to its front door embraces many of the architectural features of a Roman temple. City Hall, once the Royal Exchange, was designed by Thomas Cooley and resembles the oldest and best preserved of all the Roman temples, the Pantheon in Rome. Other buildings in Dublin such as the Bank of Ireland (College Green – formerly the Irish Houses of Parliament designed by Lovett Pearce), Leinster House (Richard Cassels), Carton House (Richard Cassels), GPO (Francis Johnson), Rotunda Hospital (Cassels), Russborough House (Cassels) and the Four Courts (James Gandon) are all Palladium buildings. Edward Lovett Pearce also designed the Stillorgan Obelisk – it is said to be modelled on the famous fountain in Piazza Navona in Rome – Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi – designed by the brilliant renaissance sculptor, Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Bernini also designed St Peter’s Square Collonnade – the colossal pillars, four abreast, reminiscent of ancient Roman temples.

Bernini designed the Baldacchino in St Peter’s Basilica over the altar and the tomb of St Peter, Rome’s first Bishop. The Basilica is built on the site of Nero’s Circus where St Peter was crucified and buried. Caravaggio famous painting, “Crucifixion of St Peter” in the church of Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome, depicts the scene – it was a very controversial painting at the time. Another of Caravaggio’s paintings, “The Taking of Christ” is on loan to the National Gallery.

The Roman forum was the centre of ancient Rome’s public life with its magnificent temples and triumphal arches. The Fusiliers’ Arch in St Stephen’s Green is a copy of the Arch of Titus. Near the forum are the two most important stadiums in the ancient Roman world, the Colosseum with a capacity of 55,000 and the Circus Maximus which could accommodate 150,000 – 250,000.  Today, Ireland’s largest stadium, Croke Park has a capacity of about 73,500. Neptune was the Roman God of the Sea and his favourite weapon was the trident – Neptune House on Temple Hill, Blackrock, was named after him and the trident logo of the Maserati car company is based on the Fountain of Neptune in Bologna’s Piazza Maggiore.

In Deansgrange Cemetery, there are at least three pieta monuments, all variations of the Pieta in St Peter’s Basilica sculpted by the famous renaissance architect, mathematician, sculptor and poet, Michelangelo. He also spent about thirty years painting the Sistine Chapel – the Creation of Adam on the ceiling and the Last Judgement on the altar wall. Michelangelo’s paintings and illuminated Book of Kells most probably inspired the Dominican nun, Sr Concepta Lynch, during her 20 years painting the Oratory – a hidden gem in Dun Laoghaire.

 

Newgrange – ‘Additional Information’    

Eanna de Burca

19 September 2017

Eanna gave a most interesting interpretation and analysis of the possible functions of the standing stones around the cairn at Newgrange. He based his research on work carried out by Dr Frank Pendergast. Eanna points out that the standing stones were added about a thousand years after the cairn was built and were placed haphazardly – the cairn itself was built by our Stone Age ancestors who were much cleverer than they’re given them credit for today.

He showed a diagram of the cairn indicating the chamber and the labelled stones – K1, GC1, GC2, GC-1, GC-2 etc. K1 is the stone directly in front of the passage entrance with three anticlockwise spirals carved on it. We are not sure what the spirals represent but we know that on the day of the Winter Solstice the sun’s rays move up the passage and light up the chamber – weather conditions permitting. At the very moment the illumination occurs in the chamber the GC1 stone casts a shadow on the centre of K1 so even an outside spectator would know exactly when the chamber became illuminated and therefore realise that this moment marked precisely the shortage day in the year and the beginning of the New Year.

Our farming ancestors needed to know about different times of the year because they needed to know when to sow the seeds and plant their crops and when to reap the them. Today, our year is made up of 12 months with an average of 30 days per month. Most probably, this was not how time was measured in the Stone Age. Eanna suggested that our ancient ancestors probably only knew eight key days in the calendar year – ie eight periods of forty-five days each. The key four days were the Winter Solstice (21 Dec), the Summer Solstice (21June), the Spring Equinox (20 March), the Fall Equinox (22 September) and each of these periods were divided in half.

So Eanna suggests that our ancestors used Newgrange as a solar calendar: on the 21 December, the shadow of standing stone GC1 falls on the centre of K1, on the 4 February the shadow of the first stone to the right of GC1 falls on the centre of K1 and so forth on the other key days. Due to the changing tilt of the earth the shadows of some stones no longer fall on the centre of K1 but come close.

Eanna reminded us that Newgrange Cairn, this marvellous and complication structure, was completed before the Great Flood which show the remarkable level of sophistication of our ancestors.

Georgian Dublin – The Force that Shaped the City

By Diarmuid O’Grada                16 May 2017       

Diarmuid gave us on fascinating insight into the growth of Dublin during the Georgian era spanning the periods of  George I and finishing with George IV when the city’s population grew rapidly from 60,000 to 180,000 inhabitants. This massive growth was spurred by men, women and children clambering into the city from the countryside seeking work and shelter. Many couldn’t find work and, as a result, there was destitution, poverty and public health issues – many women were forced into prostitution to make a living – and the city became dirty and lawless. Parish Watches, armed with a halberd, a lantern and a rattler, were organised to maintain law and order.

At the beginning of the 18th century Dublin was a medieval city with narrow crocked streets and dark cramped houses. In the mid-1700s, the Irish Parliament at College Green decided to tear down the old houses and rebuild Dublin according to a grid system with uniform buildings along straight paved streets with parks. The Wide Streets Commission were appointed to oversee the new development and they carried out their work with diligence and propriety. Parliament St was built in 1750s – a wide straight paved street with uniform houses on either side – this allowed light and air into the street and thereby improved the health of the inhabitants. Dame St, D’Olier St and Westmoreland St – again straight streets with uniform embellished granite facades – added to the grandeur of the city next to the Irish Parliament. The first big housing scheme outside the city was Merrion Square with uniform houses equipped with cisterns and built around a central green. The houses were typical upstairs-downstairs types – special entrance for servants and tradesmen through the basement. Water was piped into the city (eg Rutland Fountain) for public use. In 1756, along what is now O’Connell Street, Luke Gardiner, knocked down old houses in the northern half of the street and built uniform red-brick Georgian houses along its length with a wide space between the terraced fronts creating a pedestrian area called Gardiner’s Mall where families could promenade. The street was later continued down to the Liffey. Gardiner also built Mountjoy Square and Gardiner Street.

However, as poor country people continued pouring into the city, expansion and fashion moved southwards and eastwards to Merrion Square and St Stephen’s Green. The Wide Streets Commission also oversaw the building of the Liffey quays running from Capel St eastwards to the mouth of the Liffey. In this way, Beresford Terrace and Gandon’s Custom House were built on the reclaimed land between the quays and the North Strand. The Irish Parliament, unlike the British, had a standing army and Barrack St later became a notorious red-light district. The Lock hospital was built to treat syphilis and Charles Manners, Duke of Rutland, died there in 1787, a victim of syphilis.

Newgate Prison was built in 1780 and run as a private enterprise meaning that wealthy prisoners were well treated while the poor were undernourished and locked up in dirty overcrowded cells.

After the Act of Union, 1801, the city went into decline.

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The Account Roll of The Priory of the Holy Trinity 1337 – 1346

By Pádraig Laffan          Given  on 16 May 2017        

Pádraig gave a most interesting talk about the Augustinian Order in Ireland in the 14th century from detailed research of copies of records still in existence in Dublin. He praised the important work done by the Public Records Office and the Royal Society of Antiquaries in 19th and early 20th centuries in preserving the documents/parchments going back almost a thousand years. The Account Roll of the Priory of the Holy Trinity parchments, being very delicate, were copied and translated from the original Latin and are available to researchers. The Account Roll was an eleven foot scroll and gave day-to-day details about how this huge ecclesiastical and secular organisation ran and managed its huge estates/manors in Ireland. Unfortunately the original perished with so much else in the highly reprehensible civil war burning of the Public Records Office

The headquarters of the Priory of the Holy Trinity was Christchurch, a site given to them by the Viking King, Sitric, who was a Christian. The church building began during the Viking Age and greatly expanded following the Norman invasion since the Normans and the Augustinians worked closely together in civil as well as religious matters. On his visit to Ireland in 1202, King John granted huge tracts of land to the Augustinians making it an immensely wealthy landowner owning around 10,500 acres throughout the country, most of it in vicinity of Dublin. In Deansgrange, the Augustinian establishment consisted of two settlements on opposite sides of the valley through which the Clonkeen Stream flows, one at Bakers Corner called Kill O’ The Grange (church of the manor) and the later Norman settlement, the Manor or Grange (now completely obliterated), which was located half way up Kill Lane, just below Foxrock Church where the secular business of managing the estates took place. The ‘Kill‘ catered for the religious interests and the ‘Grange‘ catered for the business interests of the Priory. In 13th century the Priory was the wealthiest religious organisation in Ireland.

The Account Roll, an eleven-foot scroll, detailed the running costs of the manor e.g. wages of various people employed by the monks – thatchers, plough-men etc. The Steward of the manor  or Senechal, (a monk) had to keep detailed accounts of all income and costs incurred. Many pilgrims came to pray and seek relics, another important income-earner for the Priory. The Senechal also presided over the Manor Courts to settle local disputes. In addition to paying rent, tenants were expected to provide a number of days free labour sometimes supplying horse and plough. Persons were employed to  provide beer, the drink of the workers in the fields, but it is thought the beer would have been of poor quality. The Heriot practice also prevailed where upon the death of a tenant, the best beast owned by the deceased had to be given to the Priory. The parchments also dealt with costs of keeping farm animals, eg horses were dearer to feed than oxen etc. and it dealt with the the production of grain. It also detailed security costs – watchmen in the surrounding mountains were paid to warn against native Irish attack from Wicklow etc.

After the Reformation, the Augustinians converted to the new religion  and preserved their lands, wealth and privileges.

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Visit to Pearse Museum, St. Enda’s College, Rathfarnham,     13th May 2017.

Introductory talk by Eanna De Búrca       

I welcome you to Scoil Eanna, to this historic place. Emmet walked here over 200 years ago.  Pearse and his comrades walked here over 100 years ago.  This is a place sacred to the history of Ireland.

What right have I to welcome you to this hallowed spot, you might well ask?  My connection with Scoil Eanna is through my father. He, a Kildare man from Carbury on the far side of the county near the Offaly border, came here as a boarder in 1909. Before that year he was boarding in a school down in Carlow and before that he attended the local primary school in Derinturn. As we know Kildare is mainly a football county but the principal of that primary school was from Lusmagh in Co. Offaly, a hurling enclave, and he it was who instilled a love for hurling in that area. When my father arrived in Carlow armed with his hurl they wondered what it was. That was in 1908 and during the summer holidays in 1909 his mother who was visiting her sisters in Dublin, arrived home with a copy of An Macaoimh, a school magazine, edited by a man called Pearse. What inspired her to buy it, God alone knows, but it but it changed my father’s life.

There were articles in it written by the staff of the school as well as some pupils, articles in Irish as well as English, giving descriptions of visits to the theatre and walks up the mountains, accounts of hurling and football matches played in the school, my father could not wait to get there. He had little difficulty in persuading his parents in sending him to this new school, a new concept in education for Irish boys, where everything Irish was given pride of place.  And so on the 6th September 1909 he arrived in Cullenswood House where he met P.H. Pearse for the first time.  The first person he met was Mrs. Pearse, then her sons and Thomas McDonagh.  Con Colbert came later and there were others.

He was here for three years until he matriculated in 1912 and then went to the University.  As he could not commute from Carbury on a daily basis he stayed here in St. Enda’s as eight or nine others were doing. He also played for the UCD hurling and football teams and won five Sigerson Cup trophies and four Fitzgibbon cups in the process including three doubles in the one year. While he was attending the University he was sworn into the IRB by Con Colbert, and was present at the formation of the Volunteers on the 25th November, 1913. From then on he spent his spare time training with the volunteers and making bombs and other was equipment here in the school and getting ready for the Rising.

He often talked about the times they would have of the evenings downstairs in the kitchen with the Pearse family, particularly with Willie Pearse, discussing various matters some serious, some not. Pat, he used to say, was often too busy writing articles or preparing speeches to take part but it was a great family gathering.

In a letter to his mother dated October 1911, which we still have, Pearse states He seems to have made up his mind to adopt secondary teaching as his profession. …  If St. Enda’s is in existence when he is qualified he will not want for a position”.  And true to this promise, when he graduated in 1915, Pearse immediately offered him a job as a junior teacher in the school which he gladly accepted.

Of course he was involved in the Rising of 1916 in the GPO but after he was released from Frongoch, at Christmas 1916, he resumed teaching again.  That was in Cullenswood House as St. Enda’s was occupied by the British until Easter 1919. He was invited by Mrs. Pearse, to take over as headmaster of the school in 1920, a post he held until the school finally closed in 1935.  He got married in 1923 to my mother whom he first met in Stafford Jail after 1916 and moved into a bungalow specially built for the headmaster here in the grounds. That’s where I was born.

He was a member of the local flying column during the War of Independence and he continued to play for Dublin during those troublesome years. He was actually playing on Bloody Sunday, November 1921, and was marking Mick Hogan when Hogan was shot.  How he managed to do all that and teach or manage the school at the same time stretches the imagination.  One little incident which I must relate, happened during this time.  He was involved in some “meeting”, it might have been an ambush in the city, I don’t know, but he had to take the tram home as far as Terenure and walk from there to St. Enda’s.  Coming down the hill from Terenure towards the Dodder he saw that there was an Army check point on the bridge, and he was armed. He was wondering what to do as there seemed to be no escape when a stranger approached on a bicycle and asked him if he had anything on him.  For some reason my father trusted this stranger and said yes, he had a revolver.  “Give it to me and I will get it through the check point” said this stranger, which my father did.  He was searched at the check point and was let through. The stranger was waiting for him outside Rathfarnham village and gave him back the revolver for which my father was grateful.  That stranger turned out to be a member of the local R.I.C.  Years afterwards I was out walking with my father when a man passed by and saluted him.  My father then said “that’s the man who took my gun”. Unfortunately I never got his name.

It would appear that Mrs Pearse who had a very strong grá for him, almost “adopted” him as a son after losing her two sons in 1916 and she depended very much on him in the running the school. He was executor of her will when she died in 1932 and, I am very proud to say that he invited her to be my Godmother, so she it was who carried me into the Church for my Baptism.

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William Sealy Gosset – The Mystery “Student”    1876 – 1937

By  Liam Doyle     

18 April 2017

William Sealy Gosset was born in Canterbury in 1876, attended Winchester College and afterwards Oxford College where he graduated in Mathematics and Chemistry. In 1906, William married Marjorie Surtess Philpotts, an international hockey player and they had three children.

In Dublin, Cecil Guinness (1st lord Iveagh) of Guinness’ Brewing Company was endeavouring to operate the production of porter/stout on a scientific basis in order to ensure consistency of the porter/stout and hence expand its markets. They decided to employ scientists from Oxford and Cambridge and William Sealy Gosset was among the successful applicants.

William arrived in Ireland in 1913 and lived at Hollyville Park (now St Patrick’s Boys’ National School where there is a plaque to his memory), a large detached house on considerable grounds with a long driveway leading to a fine granite walled and gated entrance off  Newtown park Avenue. A housing estate is now built on the grounds and the grand entrance is the only original feature of the property now remaining – it forms the entrance to Orchard Estate.

William met the challenge of his research by using Statistics – a new idea in quality control. The scientific study of the raw materials used in the production of porter (eg hops, barley, water, yeast and hops) involved gathering a series of data using surveys and experiments. The experiments/surveys involved examining the variety and hops, barley, water etc, the grain sizes, where they were grown etc, consulting with professional tasters and then drawing “bell curves” to represent the collected data and this enable the producer to make credible predictions about taste and quality based on scientific evidence provided by the bell curve graphs. Lord Iveagh was obviously pleased with William’s research and allowed him to study for a year in England under Karl Pearson, father of Statistics. Under Pearson’s guidance the research progressed rapidly. William then decided to publish his results but due to commercial sensitive information Guinness refuse to allow him publish his real name. Instead, William published 22 scientific papers under the pseudonym “Student” dealing with moderate quality assurance. He never resented not being allowed use his own name because he never felt the need for academic recognition.

William returned to London in 1935 where he died later. ES Beavan wrote his obituary in the London Times revealing the true identity of “Student”.

During Q & A, Liam was praised for his in-depth research and wonderful presentation about this largely forgotten statistical genius and scientist who introduced statistics to research in industrial and commercial quality assurance.

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The Stone Bridges of Dublin       History and Heritage”

Revised by Rob Goodbody

18 April 2017

Twenty-five years ago, two retired engineers, Peter O’Keeffe and Tom Simington, published an amazing book called “Irish Stones Bridges, History and Heritage” but copies were quickly sold out and in recent times it became extremely rare. Rob was invited to revise and extend and republish the book and this is how he became involved in the project.

Rob began by explaining the different types of bridges – her said most of us are unaware of the bridge type when we cross over – that we need to look underneath. Bridge types depend on the type of arch: Medieval Gothic, Semi-circular, Eliptical, Three-centred and Segmental and which type is used is determined mainly by the span and height. Information regarding age of old bridges can be obtained from old maps such as Rocque’s Map 1760 where bridges such as Ballsbridge, Donnybrook and pack-horse bridge etc are shown. These maps also identify bridges which are no longer used, some partly demolished or overgrown eg King John’s Bridge at the Esker which is now just an abandoned partial arch, Grace Dieu Bridge in North Dublin, a medieval bridge which is now overgrown and Pack-horse Bridge in Milltown which was built in the early 17th century and is the oldest bridge in South Dublin. Roque’s Map 1760 also shows a ford at Milltown before the present road bridge was built in 1820. Many original bridges were widened to allow for increased traffic eg. Lissenhall Bridge, Swords. Bridges over the Dodder at Ringsend often collapsed due to floods and a muddy estuary. The present bridge at Ringsend, built in the early 18th century, is a full elliptical arch bridge, half of the arch above the water carrying the traffic and other half built below the water line supporting the bridge. Skew bridges posed engineering problems but road bridges could avoid this by building the bridge perpendicular to the river. However, skew bridges could not be avoided with canal and railway construction and had to be built eg. Three Arch Bridge, Grand Canal and this is an unique example because only one arch is visible from below – however the other two arches are hidden one of them forming the inside of an adjacent restaurant. Some bridges do not appear to cross anything eg the hump-back bridge on Hanover Street which has not been used since 1820 – it transpires that this bridge once crossed Where previously was a rope walk. Many bridges on closer inspection have a series of holes drilled into their bases – these were part of the Defence Line during WW2 and were drilled to hold explosives so that they could be blown up in the event of an invasion. Rob spoke about the nearby Lehaunstown bridge, part of the Harcourt St Rail Line, which was blown up during the Civil War, 1922, and rebuilt in concrete and the small bridge at Cabinteely House estate which was built in the 18th century.

The vote of thanks praised Rob for a very interesting and excellently researched talk which give the audience a glimpse of the magnificent and mysterious world of stone arches and stone patterns hidden under our bridges.

 

“The Young Ireland  (Newtown Park) Fife & Drum Band in the Great War”

By Conor Dodd

21 March 2017

At the turn of the 20th century, Newtown Park was a small rural village, built by the Byrnes of Cabinteely, half way along what is today Newtownpark Avenue which it is now part of the ever expanding suburbs of South County Dublin. Just before WWI there was a band movement flourishing throughout Ireland and Newtown Park, like many of its neighbouring villages and towns, had its own Fife & Drum Band. The band was formed in 1902 and Conor’s great grandfather, Richard Dodd was a member and this prompted Conor to do this marvellous piece of research. From its formation, the band was supportive of the Home Rule movement in Ireland and in 1910 it won the Junior All-Ireland Championship Prize in a competition to raise funds to erect the Parnell Monument we see today at the top of O’Connell Street. The band actively supported the 3rd Home Rule Bill and performed at many meetings, organised by the local nationalist MP William Field, in and around Blackrock. Such was its popularity, it led the local St. Patrick’s Day Parade in Blackrock in 1914 and Fr Gleeson, who was based in Blackrock at the time, celebrated mass in Irish in the local church. Fr Gleeson would later become famous for being chaplain to the Royal Munster Fusiliers during WWI – there is the famous 1915 painting at Rue De Bois, France, of Fr Gleeson on horseback and wearing a British military chaplain uniform granting the Last General Absolution to the Munsters before they went into battle.

In 1914, the Great War started and everything changed for the band. Initially the band supported recruitment rallies but soon the band members themselves enlisted and went off to war. Among those who enlisted were Conor’s great grandfather Richard and his brother William Dodd. Two days before the Easter Rising, the Saturday Herald published a veiled recruitment article titled “A band of Heroes” about the heroism and bravery of the Newtown Fife & Drum Band members who had joined the British army and showing individual pictures of the men, some in military uniform.  Richard survived the war but his brother was killed during the Battle of the Somme Offensive, the bloodiest offensive of WWI. William had been home on leave in 1915 and got married. When he returned to duty, his wife was pregnant – unfortunately her heartache did not end with William’s tragic death – their baby son died shortly after, aged six months. Another band victim, Jack Fleming, Royal Dublin Fusiliers, was killed near the end of the Somme Offensive. So proud was Jack of the band, he had brought the band’s mace and banner with him and after his death his brother, who survived the war, brought the mace and banner back home. Another band member and one of the last victims of the war, Private John Mahon, was killed in November 1918 and buried in St Symphorien Military Cemetery, France. However, the majority of the band members who enlisted survived.  One of these, Robert Lesley, served with the Royal Irish Rifles until he got severely wounded in his right arm and was sent home. Once home, Robert was treated and rehabilitated in the Military Hospital Blackrock where he was fitted with an artificial arm. Conor showed a silent film of Robert demonstrating his newly fitted artificial right arm to carry out various carpentry jobs – sawing a plank, hammering a nail etc. This ensured Robert would be able to go back into the workforce after the war.

The war had a great impact on the band. After 1918, the impetus and popularity for the Newtown Fife and Drum Band waned and finally it was disbanded. The Newtown Fife and Drum Band’s mace and banner remained in the Fleming family until two weeks ago when the Flemings presented them to the Lord Mayor of Dublin for safe-keeping. The Lord Mayor passed them on to Dublin City Library where there is a collection of paraphernalia and literature associated with the Royal Dublin Fusiliers – so a century after WWI the memories of the once very popular “Newtown Park Fife and Drum Band” and its heroic deeds are now truly safe for future generations.

 

“Grand Canal Revival – Royal Canal Restored”

By    John McKeown
21 March 2017

John McKeown, Eastern Regional Manager of Waterways Ireland, gave a fascinating insight into the two major canal systems in Ireland, the Royal Canal running northwards from the River Liffey linking Dublin to the Shannon at Longford and the Grand Canal running southwards from Dublin connecting with the Shannon near Banagher. The idea of connecting Dublin to the Shannon was proposed by an Act of (Irish) Parliament in 1715. Building the two canals was greatest engineering feat and the most expensive public works ever undertaken in Ireland up to that time. The purpose was to improve freight and passenger transport between the capital city, Dublin, and vast areas of midland and western Ireland (at a time when Irish roads were in a very poor state) and therefore promote the country’s economic activity.

Construction of the Grand Canal began in 1756, staring near Dublin and stretching across the country to the Shannon. It proved to be a very expensive project, particularly navigating through the Bog of Allen (the biggest obstacle of all) which at the time people thought impossible but it was achieved albeit at a very high cost. In 1763, Dublin Corporation took over the project because they wanted canal water for the city and put up money to complete the canal into the city. The canal from Sallins to Dublin opened for passenger service in 1779. The circular canal line from Portobello to Grand Canal Docks (biggest dock in Ireland) at Ringsend was started in 1790 and opened in 1796. The Grand Canal (212km) was officially opened in 1804. John Killaly was an Irish engineer employed by the Grand Canal Dock Company and his expert skills were particularly apt when navigating the central bog-lands. His son, Hamilton, emigrated to Canada where he became a well-known canal engineer.

A disgruntled director of the Grand Canal Company resigned and started construction of the Royal Canal in 1790.  It ran from Spenser Dock, on the north side of the Liffey, through a series of locks behind the back of Mountjoy Prison, on towards Maynooth and by 1806 the canal had reached Mullingar. In 1817 the Royal Canal, measuring 154km in length, reached the Shannon.

In 1845, the Midland Great Western Railway Company purchased the canals in order to build railways along its tow paths and they became in time a strong competitor of the canals.

By the late 1800s and early 1900s the canals began to go into decline. In the 1920s, road transport became a fierce competitor of the railways, especially the motor lorry. There was brief revival in the 1940s when canals were used to transport large quantities of turf by barge to Dublin. After the war the two biggest canal customers were Guinness and the Carlow Sugar Factory. In the 1960s, CIE finally closed the canals and the swing beams operating the lock gates were cut off to ensure locks could not be used again.

In 1986, Waterways Ireland began opening the canals and tow paths as a public amenity and for recreational purposes eg barge and boat touring, canoeing, cycling, swimming, walking, running etc Waterways Ireland encountered many obstacles during the restoration such as blocked and overgrown canals and locks, collapsed canals due bog subsidence etc, unfit bridges, rotten lock gates, issues with property holders etc. These obstacles were overcome by careful planning and negotiation, expert engineering, modern construction methods, and most of all a political will and lots of public money. The canal project has proven to be an amazing success both for the Irish public and visitors to this country who love active tourism, Irish landscape and scenery. Well done, Waterways Ireland.

“Manning Robertson and the 1936 Dun Laoghaire Survey and Plan”

Michael Cregan              

21 February 2017

Manning Robertson was born in London, his mother was from Co Carlow and he was educated in English Public Schools before training as an architect. He practised in London from 1915 until 1925.

Manning married Nora Parsons, had four children and came to Dublin in 1925. He lived on Raglan Road for a time and then Huntington Castle, Co Carlow.

He devoted his professional life to developing town Planning in Ireland and was instrumental in forwarding the “Town Planning Act, 1934”. His 1936 Dun Laoghaire Survey and Plan” was the first of its kind in Ireland. He advocated the need for open space planning as the most important part of a town planner’s work because it was so often neglected. As well as public parks, he advocated the need for proper public(social) housing and is responsible for a number of public schemes in County Dublin and elsewhere around the country – Temple Hill, Blackrock (43 cottages); St Begnet Villas, Dalkey (56 houses); Monkstown Farm; Dargle Valley in Bray and also schemes in Co Carlow and Limerick.

He published articles on town planning in magazines such as “The Irish Builder” etc and wrote numerous books – “Foundations of Architecture”, “Town Planning in Ireland” etc. These publications were the first serious comments on architecture and town planning in Ireland. He also designed the Yeats Memorial in Drumcliffe Graveyard, Co Sligo.

His “1936 Dun Laoghaire Survey and Plan” raised awareness of the high levels of poverty in and around Dublin. The 1914 census shows that many of the 63% working class population in the city lived in slum houses. In spite of hostility to town planning, Manning sought to address problems of slum housing and overcrowding by pulling down large masses of buildings and organising the growth of new planned towns which “should look like part of the surroundings rather than something dropped down ready-made”. His plan for the “Future of Dublin” was delayed due to the 1916, however it was an opportunity to redesign the city and develop suburb planning. The first public scheme was “Marino”. Manning asked the question: ”Will our suburbs be robbed of any natural beauty?”. At the time, the word “Amenity” in town planning was being used apologetically. Manning advocated good practice and the orderly progressive development of cities and towns. However, there was hostility to his views and the weakness of the “1934 Planning Legislation” was that it was not obligatory. Also in 1930, the population of Dublin was only half a million citizens and so there was no urgency for town planning.

In 1945, Manning Robertson died and his legacy translated into the “1963 Planning Act” It advocated the coastline development of Dun Laoghaire – new bathing areas, 100m swimming pool, cafes, bandstand etc. The book, “History and Scenery “, describes the Borough of Dun Laoghaire at the time and it enthusiastically highlighted the pleasures awaiting visitors to the town – its economic value as a holiday resort and pleasant climate.

Constantine Curran, friend of James Joyce, summed up the hostility to town planning as follows: “the unbridled aggressive short-sighted actions of private interest and the penny-wise attitude of constituted authority”.

During the Q&A session, one member of the audience referred to the recent newspaper report of a single house in the locality rented to seventy South American and East European immigrants and wondered whether modern Ireland was returning to the overcrowded slums of the early 20th century.

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“The Nelson Family of Kells, the UK and the Argentine … and their South Dublin connections”

Michael Richardson           

 

21 February 2017

Michael began by saying that his interest in the Nelson family began when a large silver cup, discovered in St Werburgh’s Church, Chester, presented by Mr T C Nelson in 1909 (for sports competition between two parishes in Chester) was brought to his attention and he decided to do some research into the Nelson family.

The story begins in a local graveyard in Kells, Co Meath where there is a fine memorial to the Nelson family. According to Griffith’s Valuation 1848, John Nelson and his family lived on Canon Street and were wealthy cattle breeders and graziers.

Twenty-eight members of the Nelson family are buried among the Great and the Good of early 19th century Ireland in Glasnevin Cemetery, in vaults facing the base of the round tower where Daniel O’Connell is buried.

One of his sons, James (1821 – 1896), emigrated to Liverpool and started importing cattle into the UK. He married Elizabeth McCormack and had 10 children, 4 daughters and 6 sons, all of whom ended up in the business which expanded into a chain of a thousand butcher shops throughout the UK. The UK cattle market could not supply sufficient meat to his shops and so James decided to import meat from Argentina. He bought his first refrigerated ship “Highland Scot” in 1890 and established his own shipping line– The Nelson Line – mostly to import meat but also for carrying passengers. In those days, it took three weeks to sail to Argentina. The business expanded quickly and by 1910/11 ten more refrigerated ships were purchased. In 1913 the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company bought the Nelson Shipping Line and kept the Nelson name. It was a cheaper alternative to the Royal Mail Ship. In 1932 the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company collapsed and during WW2 most of the ships were commandeered by the British War Office.

James’ son, (Sir) William Nelson, lived at Acton Park, Wrexham and was created 1st Baronet Nelson of Acton Park. He was a high-profile race horse owner and left £1m in his will. William’s second son, James married a wealthy American, Isabel Valle but then divorced her in 1919. He subsequently got married again to Cathleen Bryan who was charged with manslaughter in 1932 but later acquitted. Apparently, she knocked down and killed a Civic Guard with her motor car. Lady Cathleen Nelson also learned to fly & became a prominent aviator of her time.  Sir William’s daughter Violet married three times. One of her husbands was the 2nd Duke of Westminster. She died in 1983.

James Nelson returned from Liverpool on retirement and  lived in “Cooldrinagh”, a big house in Leixlip. He was very much involved in the building of the new Lucan Spa Hotel. Samuel Beckett’s mother, May Roe, was born and reared in this house. When May married Bill Beckett, she had their newly built house in Foxrock called after her childhood home in Leixlip.

Elizabeth Oswaldina Nelson married Joseph Michael Redmond in 1898 and lived at Gortmore, Dundrum.   She was a founder member of “Women’s National Health Association” – a branch was opened in Cabinteely.

Thomas Cormac Nelson married in the Pro-Cathedral but lived in Glasgow. In 1933, his son, Edward Hugh Cormac married Eileen Keane in St Joseph’s Church, Glasthule but Edward was killed in a train crash in 1937. Eileen’s adopted son, Brian Nelson owned the Monte Carlo garage in Dundrum. In 1972, he drove his Ford Anglia van from Dublin to Russia and the following year, 1973, he drove to Timbuktu – quite an achievement at the time! However, taking into consideration the huge successes in business and social climbing achieved by previous generations of Nelsons these two great motoring adventures probably pale into insignificance.

17 January 2017

“History of the Development of Traditional Irish Music & Song”

Presented by Siobhan Ni Chonoráin, Comhaltas Ceoltóiri Éireann,

on Flute and Tin Whistle

Accompanied by:

Mary Kelly,                         on Harp

Anne-Marie McGowan,     on Fiddle

Tom Nolan                           sean nós songs

There was a full house for this amazing historical evening of Irish Culture, Music and Song. The trio were ably lead by Siobhán Ní Chonoráin who narrated mainly in English to facilitate the entire audience and gave a most interesting, concise and insightful account of the evolution and development of Irish traditional music throughout the centuries. She referred to the role of Ceoltas Ceoltóiri Éireann which is the premier organisation fostering and nurturing Irish Culture, music, song and dance at home and abroad. Siobhán played the flute, the whistle and performed with passion, elegance and style and she explained traditional and folk music and how both were transmitted orally and aurally and like other folk art forms, they were rooted in the communities and the people. Before the 17th century music was not written down and therefore there are no primary sources. Old songs were handed down orally from composer to collectors and then on to translators and publishers resulting in variations (often regional) in title, lyrics and music to same song.

Mary Kelly, a leading harpist and wearing the traditional dress, played the cruit (the Irish Harp) with such accomplishment that even the Sean Nós songs, which are normally in the Irish language and without accompaniment, were enriched and enhanced by her accompaniment. Because it has no peddles, the Irish harp is unique and at the centre of Irish traditional music; hence it is one of the most recognisable emblems of Ireland. In the 13th and 14th century centuries the role of the harper consisted of entertaining the Clans in their castles and big country houses.

Anne-Marie McGowan, playing the fiddle with great agility and virtuosity, completed the trio. Of course, as explained by Siobhán, in a traditional Irish music context, the violin is always referred to as the fiddle – otherwise the two instruments are the same – whereas with classical music it is referred to as a violin.

The trio performed a variety of traditional compositions and before each Siobhán talked about the structure, style, background and historical context: “Miss Hamilton”, “Clan March, March of the King of Laois”, “An Raibh Tú ag an gCarraig” – meaning Were You at the (Mass) Rock.

Siobhan went on to talk about the evolution of traditional Irish dance e.g. Sean Nós, Irish Step dancing, Jigs, Céili, and River Dance etc. Dance evolved in the 17th century when the big country houses employed dance masters to teach the steps. Today, Set dancing is very popular all over the world even among non-Irish communities. The dance itself is very enjoyable and great exercise. The trio performed “The Blackbird”, a traditional Irish set dance, “The Rocky Road to Dublin” a jig made famous in song by the Dubliners, “Wild Geese” an instrumental piece and traditional Irish waltz.

The trio performed Irish ballads which tell the stories relevant to the people at the time: “Slán Abhaile” meaning Safe Home – an Irish saying used to bid goodbye to someone travelling home, “The West’s Awake” a ballad composed by Thomas Davis – the song has an unique melodic structure and laments the changing of Ireland’s Celtic Nation especially in the West. Finally, Tom Nolan, accompanied by the trio, sang “Anac Cuan” a haunting song about a boating tragedy in Galway.

This concluded a most enjoyable and wonderfully entertaining evening of Irish History, Culture, Music, Song and Dance. To Siobhan, Mary and Anne-Marie – Go raibh  míle maith agaibh, Siobhán agus do Cháirde.

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18 October 2016

Frongoch

“The University of Revolution”

By  Eanna DeBurca

Eanna DeBurca talked about his father, Frank Burke who, like many nationalists of the time, later changed his name to “Feargus DeBurca” in the spirit of the Gaelic Revival prevalent in early 19th Century Ireland. Feargus was born in Carbury, Co Kildare into a middle class rural background and during his childhood was greatly influenced by his mother whose family had connections with the Fenian movement.

During his second level education, he was a boarder in St Enda’s, Rathfarnham which was run by the Pearse family and soon came under the influence of Pádraig and Willie. After finishing his secondary education he attended UCD but continued as a boarder in St Enda’s. After graduation, he was offered a teaching position in St Enda’s and taught alongside teachers such as Thomas McDonagh. He joined the Irish Volunteers and fought in the GPO during the 1916 Rising.

1,600 Irish Volunteers took part in the Rising but afterwards over 2,500 men around the country, including Feargus DeBurca, were rounded up by the British army and transported to internment camps in England. Feargus was interned in Frangoch, originally a WW1 German POW camp, which was a cold, lonely, isolated place located in a valley in N-E Wales surrounded by a 12 ft perimeter fence. The commandant was Col. Heygate-Lambert who was described as a cranky, critical and fault-finding individual who insisted on things being done his way. The guards were mostly elderly because the younger men were all fighting at the front and even the guards disliked Heygate-Lambert. The men lived in dormitories (South Camp) or huts (North Camp) – the huts were particularly cold in winter and a German POW died from severe cold in one of the huts before the camp was occupied by the Irish. Feargus shared one of the huts with another notable rebel and future iconic political figure, Michael Collins.

The day for prisoners began with a roll-call at 5.30am followed by mass and then a reasonable good breakfast at 7.30am. At 11 o’clock there was an inspection of prisoners followed by fatigue duties under their own officers. Dinner at 12.30pm consisting of bully beef, herrings, soapy potatoes which was for the most part inedible. Families and friends sent food parcels to supplement the prison diet but these were frequently contaminated by the time they reached the prisoners. There were 3 forced marches per week through the Welsh countryside which the men apparently enjoyed and often returned to the camp well before their guards who because of their age struggled to keep up, some prisoners apparently even helping their guards’ carry their guns!  Leisure and sports times were allocated and because the prison population included 12 Kerry county players and 8 Louth players the GAA allowed them to play the final of the Wolfe Tone League in the camp It had been cancelled due to the Rising,– Kerry won. The president of the GAA was also interned in Fongoch which may have been the reason why the politically neutral GAA allowed the match to go ahead.  The men had tea at 5.30pm and afterwards the men played games e.g. chess or attended classes. The classes were very important opportunities for prisoners to gain “degrees” in “The University of Revolution” learning guerrilla warfare tactics which were effectively used after their release in their struggle against the British during the War of Independence which succeeded in liberating Ireland.

All but 600 prisoners were released when Lloyd George became Prime Minister

On 22 December 1916, the 600 prisoners were unexpectedly informed they were going home for Christmas. They were taken by train from Frongoch to Holyhead and then by boat to the North Wall in Dublin – there was great excitement and singing throughout the journey. In Dublin the men attended mass and after breakfast Feargus took the train to Carbury, Co Kildare. The men were in high spirits and there was a great sing-song on the train and as it passed through the countryside where everything looked magical with a candle burning in the window of every household which was the custom on Christmas Eve  – a welcome for the Holy Family. When Feargus finally approached his home late in the evening he could see a candle burning brightly not only in one window according to tradition but in all nine front windows – he must have immediately recognised the symbolism – Failte Abhaile Feargus.

(Summary by Michael O’Flaherty)

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18 October 2016

“100 Years of Division in Kingstown, 1816 – 1916”

By  Tom Conlon

Tom Conlon’s lecture gives a clear insight into the rigid social class system and divisions therein prevailing in the premier seaside township of Kingstown in the 19th and early 20th century. On one hand, there were the privileged classes living their fine Georgian and Victorian mansions and elegant terraces enjoying life to the full and employing large numbers of poorly paid servants to tend all their domestic household duties such as cleaning, cooking, laundry etc and looking after their employers every whim. Many of the female servants were from the country (outside Dublin) because employers felt local girls would be more prone to gossip. On the other hand, there were the “invisible poor” who etched out a miserable existence working long hours in  low paid menial jobs e.g. labourers on the railway and harbour, charwomen, fishmongers etc and who lived in filthy overcrowded ghettos called courts, in poorly built substandard housing with no sanitation, no running water and consequently causing frequent outbreaks of cholera, typhoid etc among the poor in these areas.

Tom began his lecture with a brief history of Kingstown using numerous maps, pictures & drawings pertaining to the period, 1816 – 1916: 1820 -Plan of the harbour which was sanctioned by parliament in 1816; 1856/9 – laying of the railway to the Carlisle pier with the Royal St George Yacht Club in the background; 1859 – Lifeboat Station at the end of the East Pier, Harbour Master’s Office all on its own overlooking the seafront, Kelly’s Royal Hotel, the Congregational Church on Northumberland Ave (now demolished), Victoria Wharf (now St Michael’s Wharf), East Pier (surface was about 10 ft lower than at present), Gresham Tce. (demolished & replaced by the Shopping Centre carpark). Tom also mentioned a daily ferry running between Kingstown and the Dublin to carry workmen – apparently the railway company disapproved of workmen using their trains. A picture c1870 of Upr. George’s St. showed the road with tramlines but no overhead wires because in 1870s the trams were horse drawn, the building occupied by Brian S Nolan today and beside it the Office of the Irish Times now the site of the Bank of Ireland and at the corner of Marine Rd there were two shops which were later bought by the church and demolished leaving the open plaza we have today. At the end of the 19th century, the leases on shops became due for renewal and as a condition of the renewal of leases the ground landlords, Longford and De Vesci, insisted that shop owners must rebuilt the shop fronts in an uniform red-brick style. Hence many shop fronts in Dun Laoghaire today look distinctly Edwardian rather than Victorian/Georgian. Tom also showed a picture of the Pavilion, an exclusive palatial wood and glass building, erected in 1903 for the wealthy citizens of Kingstown to enjoy dinners and concerts and outside there were tennis courts and a band stand where members could enjoy popular live music. However, the ordinary working class citizens of Kingstown were excluded – this venue was the preserve of town’s privileged classes.

Thackeray visited Kingstown in 1842 and obviously didn’t like what he saw – he described Kingstown as shabby, shabby and shabby. Even though the wealthy lived in grand houses there was no housing provision for poorer people who couldn’t afford to rent proper accommodation. Owners of shops, especially on Lr George’s St., Cumberland St. etc took advantage of this the scarcity of affordable housing by building little single storey huts and lean-to’s in the yards and stables behind their shops and renting them out. These cramped poorly built clusters of houses/huts, known as courts, became ghetto developments with no running water or sanitation and fertile grounds for the spread of diseases. The courts were deliberately hidden behind the shops and visitors/holiday makers to the town couldn’t see them from the street – the courts were invisible – and so the high reputation of Kingstown as a tourist destination and one of the most affluent towns in Ireland was protected.  The court owners also commanded high rents but provided little in the way of services and fixity of tenure. The ground landlords, Longford and De Vesci, could have stopped the development of courts but they didn’t – they also gained financially from the situation.

Griffith’s Valuation 1849 gives information regarding 49 courts and 11 lanes in Kingstown.  The OSI maps 1867 shows the courts in Kingstown. Tom show the Lr George’s Str at the site of the old Carnegie library. The courts shown on the map: Bradleys, Flynns, Burks etc all have entrances at the side of the front house bordering the street – none have independent entrances.

However, some prominent citizens tried to highlight the problem. In 1867, Charles Haliday, a wealthy merchant living in Monkstown, wrote a pamphlet identifying 644 deficient houses. At the time the population was 12,000 and by Tom Conlon’s estimation, about 45% of them lived in courts. Dr John Byrne Power, in 1874, wrote: “the town had the worse features of a town of decaying industry”. In 1900, a civil servant, Dr Thomas Browne, carried out a survey of the town where he identified 1,007 houses of the poorer classes among them 355 tenement houses (family in each room) and Crofton Courts consisting of 12 houses serviced by only one WC and one bin. Tom reminded us that at the time there was no welfare state and poor people were left to fend for themselves.

In 1903, the town council developed “The Kingstown Improvement Scheme 1903” under the “Houses of the Working Classes Act” and, from 1903 to 1908, demolished some of the courts and built a series of red-brick houses on Convent Road, Cumberland Str etc. The houses were terraced and consisted of two doors – one entering the ground level house and the other leading to the house above it. The houses were relatively small, about 500 sq ft, but having running water and a wc were a great improvement on the courts. However, the rent of 4 shillings per week was considered high for poorly paid people and therefore some people were forced to continue living in the courts. The council made a profit on two of the streets where the houses were built.

In 1915, the “Local Government Investigation” reported people still living in 441 houses in the courts – much done, a lot more to do.

At question-time, Padraig Laffan, chairman, reminded everyone that regrettably even today after a century of progress in affordable housing there are still over 1,000 homeless families living in Ireland.

(Summary by Michael O’Flaherty)

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15 November 2016
“Rev Thomas Goff, 1772 -1844, of Carriglea Property, Propinquity & Protestantism”

By  David Doyle

David Doyle is a staff member of the IADT (Institute of Art, Design and Technology), Dun Laoghaire and he gave a fascinating account of the life and times of the Rev Thomas Goff who lived at Carriglea Park ( IADT) in the late 17th and early 19th century. The account is based on the Rev Thomas’ diaries. In 2007, an Englishwoman, Pamela Gooding, gave the diaries to the IADT for safekeeping, transcription and digitalisation. David became interested and decided to use the them as the subject matter of his MA thesis.

How diaries survived after the Rev Thomas’ death, 1844, is quite intriguing. First, they passed to his son, William Goff, an Anglo-Irish gentleman and MP for Roscommon. Next they passed to Clarence Edward Goff, educated at Eton and Oxford and whose wedding in London to Lady Cecilia Willowby was reported in the newspapers as a “Society Wedding”. They lived on their large country estate at Carrowroe Park, Co Roscommon. Major Goff fought with the British army in the Boer War and The Great War. In 1920, the Goffs sold all their estates in Ireland and moved to England. Following Major Goff’s death in 1949, his daughter, Elizabeth Moyra Goff, inherited the diaries. Subsequently, Pamela Gooding acquired them and decided to take them back to Ireland.

David then outlined how the Goffs accumulated their vast fortune – equally fascinating. One of the Rev Thomas’ grandfathers was a certain Thomas “Guff” in Roscommon, a shop-keeper who employed three “Papist” servants. On the other side of the family, his great, great grandfather was George II of England. King William IV (1765-1837) had no legitimate children, however, he had ten illegitimate children with his mistress, actress Dorothea Bland who also went by the name of Mrs. Jordan. Dorothy’s (sometimes called) /Dorothea’s children were very well-off and one of them married “Guff” bringing considerable wealth into the family and around this time David believes the name “Guff” changed to Goff.

The content of the diaries varies greatly. In one excerpt, Thomas describes bringing his son the Dentist Grimshaw. In another, 1803, Thomas describes being in Dublin when the Robert Emmet Rebellion broke out. The diaries portray the Rev. Thomas as Anti-Catholic and yet he appears relaxed regarding Catholic Emancipation, 1829 – he hated Daniel O’Connell (Napoleon was his other hate figure). The disestablishment of the Church of Ireland was one of his greatest fears and he became “Anti-dis-establishment”. In 1822, he airs his fears as follows: “…one possessing a church without what we can properly call a religion and the other possessing a religion without what we can properly call a church”.

The diaries also give an insight into other aspects of Thomas’ life style. Thomas was a prolific traveler, travelling on horseback all over Ireland and frequently sailing to England between the Pigeon House and Holyhead. However, unlike many of his wealthy compatriots, he never traveled to the Continent. His father, Robert, was a very wealthy land owner who apparently had the prime minister, William Pitt, in his pocket. In 1802 alone, Robert spent c. £13,500 on property deals. Like his father, Thomas also did property deals with landlords such as the Beresford’s and the Gardiners and owned a town house at 55 (now 59) Eccles Street, Dublin.

So, in summary, David described the Rev Thomas Goff was a very wealthy and powerful man who could do and say what he liked – a Church of Ireland minister, land owner and sometimes army chaplain. While living at Carriglea House, Rev Thomas planted an orchard behind the house both of which are still there today and David encouraged everyone to come and see it for themselves.

Note:      Foxrock Local History Club has a publication

Carriglea – From Country Demesne to College of Art

Publication No. 20 in our series It is written by Moira Laffan